features of language standardization

The concern surrounding language variation dates back to the 16th century, where the first attempt for language standardisation was made. Language varieties gain prestige when its speakers possess high social standing. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. in aspects of writing, reading, and speaking), while 80% agreed that learning and using the standard Basque was necessary for work and for everyday life. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. Oxford University Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, Language Standardization, and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. Language standardization is often looked to by language communities as a means for language maintenance and strengthening cultural integrity, yet it may also contribute to varying degrees of linguistic discrimination and social conflict. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. One point to note is that human language does not necessarily need to divide into different forms. Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). From a broader perspective, acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication and assimilation within a larger social group (e.g. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a Psychology Press, 1997. Some might feel that the standard form of a society was chosen because it is superior to all other options. Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS Bartsch, Renate 1985-06-01 00:00:00 * I thank Bjorn Jernudd, Monsur Musa, and K . Fairclough, Norman. 19. As such, standard forms of language can differ at different points in time, even within the same society. Rihanna’s ‘Work’ Lyrics Use Creole & Patois, Totally Confusing Music. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. For instance, the use of double negatives – ‘that won’t do you no good’ – is deemed confusing, redundant and incorrect by the masses. Having earned a BA in linguistics some time ago, and having made use of a lot of linguistic information in 23 years as a speech/language therapist, I have to disagree with a number of others who have answered this question. Language educators were also deeply motivated to teach the standard Basque. (domains, timetables, territorial extent, etc.) It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. Elkartea, Garabide. This paper deals with the concepts of language planning and language standardization which are in direct relation with the concept language policy. WordPress, 9. Accessed 1 April 2017. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. STANDARDIZING? standardization definition: 1. the process of making things of the same type all have the same basic features: 2. the process…. These steps or stages in corpus development are also seen as paralleled by policy development, and some analysts enumerate these steps in language policy planning (Eastman 1983:12): . In line with the said, the stands of several linguists about the a/s phenomena are presented as the Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). “Political correctness’: The politics of culture and language.” Discourse &. would be the ones to spread the use of this standard language. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as "Standardization is concerned with linguistic forms (corpus planning, i.e. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. British Library Board. A&C Black. Such system is then regarded as the absolute legitimate and “correct” standard of language, and hence, is esteemed above everyday speakers of the language. In the end, Mitxelena reasoned that “the young are always right” (Elkartea 36), and since the young writers were in favour of the letter ‘h’, the spelling reformation was ruled. Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. Accessed 10 March 2017. In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect—is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. language standardization, ther efore, is less about language itself as function and structure, than it is about ideologies and hegemonies about lang uage, or what is called “language ideology”. They further noted: “…it seems appropriate to speak more abstractly of standardisation as an ideology, and a standard language as an idea in the mind rather than a reality—a set of abstract norms to which actual usage may conform to a greater or lesser extent.” (p. 19). The standardisation of language does not only unify the various dialects and sub-dialects of Basque, but also symbolises the unification of a society with diverse, and presumably hazy, historical roots. Is the process of development of a standard for written and/or oral language It occurs in a specific manner that depends on the community and the social, historical and geographic aspects involved. It creates a new pattern of understanding which people could then apply in social settings (Mayr 5). Dudley, Leon. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. (It is, of course, an open question as to how much, if any, standardization is really required. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Linguists commonly use language variety (or simply variety) as a cover term for any of the overlapping subcategories of a language, including dialect, register, jargon, and … In addition, standard languages are also discursive projects, and standardization processes are typically accompanied by the development of specific discourse practices. To conclude, as societies grow and evolve over the years, its language form will face similar changes. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. Standardization focuses on the product creation process, operations of businesses, technology in use, and how specific compulsory processes are instituted or carried out. Thus, we can see that language standardisation is not only concerned with linguistic and literary goals, but also largely fuelled by economics, trade, and enterprise (Milroy 534-535). The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. Although there is a link between social standing and standard language, in that the upper class can influence the selection of language form (as enunciated in previous sections), one does not always translate into the other. With every generation, new words are constantly invented and introduced into the language lexicon, which may then be taught to the next generation (Crystal 132). Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. The latter, in contrast, are then stigmatized for using non-standard dialects. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. Routledge, 2000. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. Crystal, David. Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. Vol. Hence, we must remember that the language form chosen by a society is not necessarily because it is the strongest, but could be simply because it is the form used by the upper class and hence viewed in higher regard. Chinese languages, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Unaware of the existence of such slang, fans and music critics alike were quick to deem the song complete ‘gibberish’, despite its lyrics possessing proper meaning and semantics (Thomas). Actually, any language varies according to , the nature of the society, what kind of people, and their attitudes. John Benjamins Publishing, 2004. “Standardization” of Language in ELT Context. Thus, it is crucial to understand that the standard language forms are not universal, and they can still have varieties across different regions. One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. Updated January 08, 2019. Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION HOW AND WHY Admilson F. S. Silva Luiz de Castro 2. Those whom have accepted and are familiarised with the standard language can engage in discourse (Deumert 2), so to generate knowledge about communicative methods and processes. Here’s the formula for standardization: Subsequently, where language standardisation found to be delayed, industrialisation came into play (Dudley 1). Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason. Standardization of language course is considered very important in the process of language planning. Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy. Critics. However, as the use of ‘h’ were valued by the northern Basque writers and speakers, Mitxelena saw the importance of its inclusion in the standard language. James and Lesley Milroy expressed that language standardisation does not symbolise an actual end-product, but rather, a significant process with no completion. Penguin, 2000, (Peter Elbow, Vernacular Eloquence: What Speech Can Bring to Writing. We use language and that language is a part of society. For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). This process brings to a language a uniformity and consistent norm and form of writing and speaking, and the promotion of uniformity and consistency usually entails the reduction or elimination of variation. 2010. Selection. Latin didn't diverge much till the end of the Roman empire in the fifth century, but then as it lived on as the spoken language throughout Europe, it began to diverge somewhat into multiple 'Latins.' The term re-standardization refers to the ways in which a language may be reshaped by its speakers and writers. Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. Hence, we can see that this division is somewhat “man-made”. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the aesthetic. Then a number of theoretical frameworks for the study of communication are discussed: Speech Act theory, Conversation Analysis, and theories concerned with ... Natural language facilitates communication in several other respects, be- 3.3 The Process of Language Standardization Standardization is a necessary and vital process in any language. Leith, Dick. Milroy, James. This means that the mean of the attribute becomes zero and the resultant distribution has a unit standard deviation. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. If a language form is used by the upper class, society automatically esteems it over other forms and views it as the supreme option, even though it does not necessarily allow us to communicate or express ourselves better than other forms. We need not thinkof them as being chronological. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. An Example of Standardization and Divergence: Latin, The Creation and Enforcement of Language Standards, Definition and Examples of Acrolects in Language, What You Should Know About Creole Language, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Codification in English. These discourses emphasize the desirability of uniformity and correctness in language use, the primacy of writing and the very idea of a national language as the only legitimate language of the speech community...", John E. Joseph, 1987; quoted by Darren Paffey in "Globalizing Standard Spanish." For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. However, this ‘superiority’ may be a social construct, attributed to certain language forms because of the social standing of their speakers (Milroy 532). The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. Authority In Language. Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. Accessed 6 March 2017. People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. Lastly, a writing system is established to prescribe this language (along with official dictionaries and guidebooks). shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). Development in these areas create pressure to establish regularity in other areas, such as currency and language, to facilitate and increase efficiency in communication between countries. The Basque case study is significant not only for the fact that it is relatively recent but that it also reflects Milroy & Milroy’s conception that a language standard is not an end-product to be achieved, but rather, it is a process of development that the society embarks on. Another quality of a good assessment is standardization. Following, the society must then express a desire for uniformity by filtering out any irregularities and establishing a consistent communication system between individuals. Journal of, Thomas, Tiffany. A Little Book of Language. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. Yale University Press, 2010. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. Therefore, language standardisation is never stagnant or complete, but will continue revising itself as long as the language is still in use. S. Rayjashree of the Project on Modernization and Language Development at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, for what I … The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. A standard language is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … selection and codification) as well as the social and communicative functions of language (status planning, i.e. He had stressed on the fact that “Basque should move towards unification, and unification should commence chiefly with matters of form” (Elkartea 36). Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. Standardization or standardization is a process that takes place in stages; was not completely finished. Secondly, the language then gains prestige within the society for being associated with those of high social status. It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. Software languages will evolve over time just like software applications do. Deumert, Ana. Overall, the whole process aims to create a ‘melting pot’ environment, homogenising a certain culture that comes with the language. Such networks proved particularly important for innovations requiring collaboration. A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. Alcuin brought in 'good Latin' because it came from books; it didn't have all the 'problems' that came from a language being spoken as a native tongue. 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